Wednesday, April 20, 2016


about hotel industry
example of one of the best hotel.01
Hotel industry is a sector of business that revolves around providing accommodations for travelers. Success in this industry relies on catering to the needs of the targeted clientele, creating a desirable atmosphere, and providing a wide variety of services and amenities. Managing hotels has grown from its modest roots in providing the bare essentials of lodging into a large, multi-faceted, and diverse industry. In hotel there are many facilities are available for the guest. Hotel is the place where we get home like atmosphere and where the guest can feel comfortable to live.

                The foundation of the hotel industry is of course for the business of providing lodging.Travelers depend on hotels to supply a secure, pleasant place for a temporary stay. Whether the guests are business people on the road for work, families on vacation, or groups of tourists, they all need comfortable accommodations, and the hotel industry is where they turn to find them.

                  We can find various type of rooms in hotel and Most hotel rooms are designed for a short stay, and come equipped with a bed, bathroom, linens, and basic features such as a phone and television. Hotel is also counted as hospitality sector.

                  Generally, there is much more than renting rooms woven into this industry. Many hotels have in-house bars and restaurants that require their own staff. A critically acclaimed restaurant can earn money for a hotel even if its patrons are not room-renting guests. It is also common for hotels to have pools, fitness facilities, or activity centers available for guests seeking recreation. Some companies even offer valet and laundering services, Internet access, and child care.

                   Hotels are certainly necessary all over the world, wherever there are travelers who need lodging. Hotspots for the hotel industry, however, are popular tourist locations. For example, savvy proprietors know that a hotel in close proximity to a heavily visited city, monument, stadium, or theme park will benefit from meeting the demands of large influxes of travelers.


Types of hotel or Classification of hotels
 There are many types of hotel we can found in this new technological generation, such are classified according to their size, location, target markets, levels of service , facilities provided, number of rooms , ownership and affiliation etc.

 1.Size - Or number of rooms

 a) Under 200 rooms
 b) 200 to 399 rooms
 c) 400 to 700 rooms
 d) More than 700 rooms

 These categories enable hotels of similar size to compare operating procedures and statistical results.

 2. Location

 a)Downtown / Commercial / City hotel
               These hotels are situated at the heart of city.

                This hotel are eco-friendly commercial hotel, basically designed for long  stag guest entitled from hill, bank of the river, where the natural beauty has its significances.

  c) Transit Hotel
                 Transit hotel are usually located such as airport, railway, station, bus station, harbor or ports to catering the passenger. Airport hotel an example of transit hotel.

 d) Motel
                 In simple motel means the hotel situated by the side of highways
 e) Sub-urban Hotel
                      Sub-urban hotel located away from city center.

 3. Levels Of service

 a) World class service: - These are also called luxury / Five Start hotels , they target top business executives, entertainment celebrities , high- ranking political figures, and wealthy clientele as their primary markets . They provide upscale restaurants and lounges , Valet, concierge services and also private dining facilities.

 b) Mid-Range Service: - This kind of hotels does not provide elaborate service and have a adequate staffing . They also provide uniformed service , food and beverage room service, in room entertainment's and also Wi-Fi etc.

 c) Budget / Limited Service: These hotels provide clean , comfortable , safe , inexpensive rooms and meet the basic need of guests . Budget hotels appeal primarily to budget minded travellers who wants a room with minimum services and amenities required for comfortable stay, without unnecessary paying additional cost for costly services.

 4. Ownership and Affiliations

 a) Independent / Single Owner Hotels :- They do not have identifiable ownership or management affiliation with other properties. Example for the same would be family owned and operated hotel that is not following any corporate policies or procedures.

 b) Chain hotels :- Hotels which are part of a hotel chain and these kind of ownership usually imposes certain minimum standards, rules , policies and procedures to restrict affiliate activities .


Some important section of hotel industry
Section is the most important of the hotel. Mainly three section are very important in hotel, they are food and beverage service, food production and housekeeping. These three section are the section which make the hotel easy run.

 a)food and beverage service
                                              Food and beverage service is a dynamic industry covering a wide range of job roles. It is the section where all the services are done through the waiter and waitress. Restaurant, bar, cafe etc are the area of food and beverage service. Basically, service is done when the guest entered in the restaurant then first of all the waiter/waitress should wish the guest as per the time , help them to sit, offer a menu, take order etc. is done in good manner and give them respect, show your behavior which impress the guest toward the organization which help to increase the revenue and name.

 b)food production
                               Food production is the process of transforming raw ingredients into prepared food products. Food production includes industries that take raw food products and convert them into marketable food items. Home food production includes converting produce into forms for long-term storage. Kitchen is the main food production area. Many safety majors are taken to prevent food because there are perishable and non-perishable food. Many equipment are used in kitchen to prepare food. In this section only related or authorized person can enter for the safety and security.

                          Housekeeping means up-keeping of the hotel. Up-keep means keeping a clean,comfortable and safe hotel. Housekeeping department in a hotel is responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance and aesthetic upkeep of the property. This department is also responsible for every aspect of guest room that is to provide all the required guest supplies and materials according to the guest request during their stay in the hotel. At the same time, housekeeping maintains an ensure security for the rooms property and guest belongings.

Housekeeping department is responsible for the following:

  • Cleaning and up-keeping of the hotel rooms.
  • Cleaning  of public areas.
  • Laundering of guest linen.
  • Issuing and collection of linens from various outlets.
  • Cleaning of banquet halls and other food and beverage outlets.
  • Placing of various VIP amenities, etc. in the VIP guest rooms.
  • Co-ordination with the other departments of the hotel.
  • Maintenance of the gardens.
  • Cleanliness and maintenance of swimming pool.
  • Implementation of pest control activities in all the areas of the hotel.

 To manage housekeeping department efficiently and effectively, the following points should be considered:

  • Design and decor of the guest bedroom, bathroom and floor pantries.
  • Design and layout of sections of housekeeping.
  • Selection of proper furnishings.
  • Provide required equipment, supplies and amenities.
  • Recruit skilled and semi-skilled manpower.
  • Conduct theory and practical training program, as well as on the job training.
  • Hire temporary staff for managing peak season.
  • Specify the performance standard.
  • Staff motivation and recognition.
  • Plan and organize the work efficiently.
  • Forecast budget.

             The definition of a lobby is a central hall at the entrance to a building or a large waiting room.

  • A hall or large anteroom, as a waiting room or vestibule of an apartment house, hotel, theater, etc.
  • A large hall adjacent to the assembly hall of a legislature and open to the public.
  • A public room next to the assembly chamber of a legislative body.


The Housekeeping Department is responsible for the immaculate care and upkeep of all guest rooms and public spaces. Individuals who excel in our Housekeeping Departments have an eye for detail and a commitment to the training, development and motivation of a diverse group of talented employees. In a competitive hotel market, it is service and cleanliness that really make an impact on our guests and determine whether they will return.Without housekeeping department hotel cannot run smoothly. For smooth run of hotel HK plays an important role.

A housekeeper is a person employed to manage a household,and the domestic staff. According to the Victorian Era Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, the housekeeper is second in command in the house and "except in large establishments, where there is a house steward, the housekeeper must consider his/herself as the immediate representative of her mistress".

Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, laundry and bill pay. These tasks may be performed by any of the household members, or by other persons hired to perform these tasks. The term is also used to refer to the money allocated for such use.By extension, an office or organization, as well as the maintenance of computer storage systems.


Importance of housekeeping
Housekeeping is the most important department of the hotel for the smooth run.Housekeeping may be defined as ‘provision of a clean, comfortable, safe and aesthetically appealing environment’.

By another definition, ‘housekeeping is an operational department in a hotel, which is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance, aesthetic upkeep of rooms, public areas, back areas and the surroundings’.

The effort that a housekeeping department makes in giving a guest a desirable room has a direct bearing on the guest’s experience in a hotel.Guestrooms are the heart of the hotel.Unless its decor is appropriate, the air odour-free, and furnishings and upholstery spotless clean, the hotel may lose the guest as a potential repeat customer.

The housekeeping department not only prepares clean guestrooms on a timely basis for arriving guests, but also cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive as the day it opened for business. Housekeeping, thus, is an ancillary department that contributes in a big way towards the overall reputation of a property.

 It is rightly said that housekeeping is a 24 x 7 x 365 operation.
 Imagine the stacks of linen needed to make up all the beds in a hotel;
 the huge amounts of bath soap, tissue, and other amenities such as shampoos, colognes, and so on that must be placed in the guestrooms;
 the miles of carpeting, floors, walls, and ceilings to be cleaned and maintained;
 the countless pieces of furniture that must be dusted and polished, and the barrels of cleaning compounds along with special tools and equipment needed in order to clean these.
 Other than hotels, professional housekeeping services are very much in demand in hospitals, on cruise liners, at offices, and more. Since most such organizations prefer to outsource these functions , contract housekeeping is becoming a lucrative entrepreneurship venture these days.

Housekeeping is the department that deals essentially with cleanliness and all ancillary service attached to that.

The standard plays an important role in the reputation of the hotels. One feels comfortable only in the environment which is clean and well ordered, so cleanliness is important for health foremost also for well being.

 Accommodation in hotels tend to be the largest part of the hotel, it is the most revenue generating department, the housekeeping department takes care of all rooms is often largest department in hotels. The rooms in hotels are offered as accommodation to travelers/ guest as individual units of bedroom. Some interconnected rooms are also made which will be helpful to the guest and families. Many hotels offer suits to the guest.

Hotel offer laundry, dry leaning facilities for guest clothes, shoe polishing facilities also. Hotel aims to make environment comfortable and offer specialized service to the guest.

Hotel offer guest the choice of specialty restaurant, coffee shop. The bar also sells liquors which generate the revenue of the hotel. They are available in banqueting, meeting and private party facilities. Revenue can be generated from conferencing, meeting, seminar etc. These days shopping arcade also found in hotels.

A health club is a part of facilities of most large hotels especially resort hotels this also include swimming pool and spa facilities. Hotels try to make the ambiance as pleasant as possible by nice color scheme, attractive furnishing and a well kept efficient staff.

House keeping is the department determine to a large extent whether guests are happy during stay and in turn mankind they return to the hotel. The fine accommodation and service are provided to the guest so they are pleased with the hotel. The guest satisfaction is its primary object and the hygiene factor must always be present in the hotel.

 In hotels major part of revenue comes from rooms, rooms which is not sold on any night losses revenue forever and reason for poor occupancy can be anything like hygiene factor, cleanliness, lack of modernizing etc. hence main purpose is to improve whole appeal of the room. A guest spend more time alone in his room than any other part of the hotel, so he can check up the cleanliness he wishes to as some of the guest are more health conscious these days.

 He may check up dusting, in-depth cleaning and losses confidence if properly not done e.g. If drawers are not cleaned he may generally won't feel like putting his clothes down. Decent room supplies are service like quick laundry and dry cleaning service shows guest that hotel is considering his comfort and wishes to please him. not only this from the cleanliness of lobby, public area, restaurant, cloakrooms, the state and cleanliness of uniform the guest can judge a lot about hotel. it can be positive or negative judgement we can conclude that housekeeping department contributes greatly to all guest impression of the hotel.


Following are the responsibilities of housekeeping department:

  1. To achieve the maximum efficiency in ensuring the care and comfort of guests & in the smooth functioning of the department.
  2. To establish a welcoming atmosphere.
  3. To ensure courteousness, reliable service from all staff to the guest.
  4. To ensure a high standard of cleanliness and general upkeep in all areas for which the department is responsible.
  5. To provide linen in rooms, restaurants, banquet halls, conference halls, health clubs etc, as well as to maintain an inventory for the same.
  6. To provide uniforms for all the staff & maintain inventory for the same.
  7. To Cater to the laundering requirements of hotel linen, staff uniforms, and guests.
  8. To provide & maintain the floral decorations and to maintain the landscaped areas of the hotel.
  9. To select the right contractors & ensure the quality of work is maintained.
  10. To co-ordinate renovation and refurnishing of the property in consultation with the management & with interior designers.
  11. To co-ordinate with the purchase department for the procurement of guest supplies, cleaning agents, equipments, fabrics, carpets, & other items used in the hotel.
  12. To deal with lost & found articles.
  13. Carpet shampooing.
  14. Dealing with any guest queries, complaints & requests as they occur.
  15. To keep the general manager or administrator informed of all matters requiring attention.


#Area under the purview of housekeeping

  1.  Front of the house areas.
  2.  Back of the house areas

1. Front of the House areas:

  •  Guestrooms
  •  Corridors
  •  Lobbies & public restrooms
  •  Pool and patio areas
  •  Meeting rooms
  •  Dining rooms/restaurants
  •  Banquets Halls
  •  Convention Halls
  •  Hotel-operated shops
  •  Recreation rooms (Games rooms)
  •  Gymnasium rooms
  •  Building exterior
  •  Landscaping & gardens

 2.Back of the house areas

  •  Management offices
  •  Storage areas
  •  Linen & sewing rooms
  •  Laundry room
  •  Employee locker rooms
  •  Administrative offices
  •  Cloakrooms
  •  Maid’s service room


Layout of housekeeping department
 The layout of the housekeeping department is the physical demarcation of areas in the department.
 When the layout is well-planned, it enables the smooth functioning of the department.
 The layout is dependent on the size of the hotel as well as physical space restrictions.
 Normally, the layout is decided by the executive housekeeper, at the facility planning stage in setting up the hotel.

 The following factors are taken into consideration when deciding on the area and layout:

  •  Total number of guestrooms
  •  Number of function rooms and number of food-and-beverage outlets
  •  Amount of manpower required
  •  Volume of business anticipated
  •  Number of jobs contracted out.
  •  Flow of traffic (people and equipment)

The following areas constitute the layout of a housekeeping department:

  1.  Executive housekeeper’s cabin
  2.  Secretary’s cabin
  3.  Desk Control Room
  4.  Lost and found Section
  5.  Housekeeping Stores
  6.  Florist’s room
  7.  Linen and Uniform room
  8.  Linen Store
  9.  Sewing room
  10.  Floor Pantry/Maid’s service room


Housekeeping Job description
Sample housekeeping job description. Housekeepers are employed either in a private home or in a commercial environment such as a hotel. Duties will vary according to the employment environment but the basic tasks and skills required to perform the housekeeping job remain the same.

 The sample housekeeper job description lists these common tasks and requirements and also identifies the additional tasks and skills required for a housekeeping job in a domestic environment and in a commercial service.

  •  General Purpose

To maintain a clean, sanitary, comfortable and tidy environment for either private households or commercial establishments.

  • Main Job Tasks And Responsibilities

  1. sweep, scrub, mop and polish floors
  2. vacuum clean carpets, rugs and draperies
  3. shampoo carpets, rugs and upholstery
  4. dust and polish furniture and fittings
  5. clean metal fixtures and fittings
  6. empty and clean trash containers
  7. dispose of trash in a sanitary manner
  8. clean wash basins, mirrors, tubs and showers
  9. wipe down glass surfaces
  10. make up beds and change linens as required
  11. tidy up rooms
  12. wash windows as scheduled
  13. sort, wash, load and unload laundry
  14. iron and press clothing and linen
  15. sort, fold and put away clean laundry
  16. operate mechanized cleaning equipment
  17. maintain all cleaning equipment and materials in a safe and sanitary working condition
  18. monitor and report necessary domestic repairs and replacements
  19. Domestic Housekeeper

  • In addition to the above a housekeeper employed in a private household may perform some or all of the following duties:

  1. check and purchase groceries and household supplies to maintain adequate levels
  2. maintain record of related expenditure
  3. plan and cook meals for employer
  4. care for household pets
  5. polish silverware
  6. wash dishes and clean kitchen according to agreed hygiene standards
  7. clean appliances
  8. run errands for employer
  9. answer telephone and take messages
  10. take care of children.


  •  In addition to general housekeeping tasks the housekeeper duties in a hotel or similar environment will include:

  1. clean corridors, lobbies, stairways, elevators and lounges as well as guest rooms
  2. organize work schedule from the room status list, arrivals and departures
  3. distribute linen, towels and room supplies using wheeled carts or by hand
  4. restock room supplies such as drinking glasses, soaps, shampoos, writing supplies, mini bar
  5. replace dirty linens with clean items
  6. inspect and turn mattresses regularly
  7. store all dirty laundry in line with company policy
  8. monitor guest laundry bags
  9. replace laundry bags and slips
  10. check all appliances in rooms are in working order
  11. realign furniture and amenities according to prescribed layout
  12. respond to guest queries and requests
  13. respond to calls for housekeeping problems such as spills, broken glasses
  14. deliver any requested housekeeping items to guest rooms
  15. remove room service items
  16. organize and restock cart at the end of the shift
  17. ensure confidentiality and security of guest rooms
  18. follow all company safety and security procedures
  19. report any maintenance issues or safety hazards
  20. observe and report damage of hotel property
  • Key Competencies

  1. attention to detail
  2. customer focus
  3. reliability
  4. listening skills
  5. adaptability
  6. planning and organizing
  7. team work
  8. integrity
  9. honesty
  10. high energy levels


Housekeeping department duties
 A housekeeping department might not be as celebrated as income-generating positions such as sales, but housekeeping employees are essential to keeping businesses running smoothly. Some businesses, such as hotels and hospitals, might have large housekeeping departments. Smaller companies that own their own buildings and government organizations, including schools, are likely to have at least a few people on the housekeeping payroll. No matter what, the duties of a housekeeping department remain the same.

  • Basic Duties

 In general, housekeeping departments are in charge of keeping buildings clean. They sweep, mop, dust, vacuum and clean the bathrooms. Housekeeping staff also clean windows and public areas, and they often remove trash and deposit it in the building's dumpsters. Many refill toilet paper rolls and hand soap in the bathrooms, and keep an eye out for issues such as burned-out light bulbs that need replacing, sometimes changing the bulbs or telling maintenance about the issues.

  • Hotels

 In addition to basic duties, hotel housekeeping employees change sheets and make beds in the guest rooms. They keep the rooms stocked with clean cups, coffee supplies, towels and other bathroom items, such as shampoo. These staff members often must pass background checks because they have access to guests' private belongings, including cash and jewelry left in the rooms. In the laundry room, some housekeeping employees wash, dry and fold sheets and towels. Housekeeping staff often deliver additional items guests request, such as extra pillows or blankets.

  • Hospitals

 Hospitals need housekeeping professionals who understand the importance of sanitizing a space rather than just cleaning it; these employees must understand proper sanitation practices to keep the spread of infection within the hospital to a minimum. They change sheets and clean up messes, often consisting of bodily fluids. Hospital housekeeping employees must be trained in maintaining confidentiality; they are often in hospital rooms when the patients are there, sometimes with doctors or family members discussing care options. They also might be required to wash and restock scrubs, sheets, blankets and towels throughout the hospital.

  • Corporate or Government Buildings

 In other corporate or government buildings, housekeeping departments often manage outdoor common areas such as courtyards or parking lots, sweeping up debris and emptying outdoor trash bins. These employees might clean areas specific to the building, such as kitchens used in break rooms or meeting rooms. The housekeeping staff members might be required to set up the meeting rooms in different configurations as requested, moving tables, chairs and electronic equipment. Many of these employees work after hours, cleaning when the other employees or students have gone home for the evening.


Front office is the most visible segment of any hotel industry which is strategically located right at the entrance of the hotel building within the high traffic lobby area. It is regarded as the nerve centre of any hotel. It is attractively designed and sufficiently equipped to perform the necessary formalities related to arriving and departing guest.
It is the place where the travelers/visitors come into contact with the hotel for the very first time. It is solely responsible for the sale of hotel accommodation method of reservation, followed by reservation and assigning accommodation to guest.

Front desk personnel play crucial role in giving the first assurance to an arriving guest. The impression crested here can very often influence the entire period of guest stay in the hotel. They are also the last to see a guest off in a happy frame of mind. This department not only deals with the above functions, but also deals with guest relation, guest comfort and convenience.

The Front office is the nerve center of a hotel. Members of the front-office staff welcome the guests, carry their luggage, help them register, give them their room keys and mail, answer questions about the activities in the hotel and surrounding area, and finally check them out. In fact, the only direct contact most guests have with hotel employees, other than in the restaurants, is with members of the front-office staff.

 Front office system
1. Non-automated: It is run by the mechanical equipment such as reception and key racks, paper file, manual key and all paper works. This system is mostly operated by the small category hotels and other business industries.
2. Semi-automated: it is run by the machines such as room rack and key rack with light system, posting machine, ECR, typewriter, fax machine and other support devices, etc. This system mostly operated by medium category hotel and other accommodation industries.
3. Full-automated: It is fully run by the aid of the modern computer system with the help of software. This system has done away with the room rack and guest rack. The computer terminals have replaced them with all the information of guest check-in and check-out. It is equipped with printer, telephone, internet, credit card processer, voice mail/ message, room service alert, emergency siren, etc. This system is operated by large hotel and other accommodation industries.



 1. Deal with room reservation request.
 2. Prepare guest arrival and departure.
 3. Check-in arriving guest.
 4. Receive guest and help them to complete registration formalities.
 5. Help in marketing and sales and promotion strategies.
 6. Deals with various inquiries and information of in-house and out-house activity.
 7. Settle account and departing guests.
 8. Deals with mail, message and paging of guest.
 9. Keep relevant guest record.
 10. Produce daily report and statistics.
 11. Take action and be the center of coordination during emergencies.
 12. Handle guest complaints.
 13. Co-ordinate paging the guest.
 14. Deal with accident and unusual event.
 15. Handle and control guest key.

Front office personnel
 1. Front office manager
 2. Assistant front office manager
 3. Front office supervisor
 4. Information assistant
 5. Reservation assistant
 6. Receptionist
 7. Night auditor
 8. Front office cashier

Essential attributes of front office personnel
 1. Personal hygiene
 2. Personal grooming
 3. Language
 4. Calmness
 5. Diplomacy
 6. Retention ability
 7. Good manner
 8. Cheerfulness
 9. Physical fitness and posture
 10. Quick decision making ability
 11. Communication and responsiveness


Lobby is the area located inside the entrance of a hotel building with sitting arrangements for guests/ visitors to meet and wait. It is synonym to the word ‘foyer’, which means a white passage or large hall just inside the entrance of a public building. The dimension and design of this area rely upon the size and design of the building. Basically, lobby area must be furnished with all necessary facilities, e.g. lobby desk, bell desk, travel desk, GRE desk,  reception desk, front office cash counter, elevators, and news stand, cigar stand, business center, magazine rack, intercom and pay phone, pastry shop, safety lockers, etc.

 The lobby is the first, and very often the last, point of contact for guest/ visitors and the hotel. Thus, hotel management attempts to make the lobby appear attractive and convenient. Perhaps, the lobby is not a department or section, it is  a part of the hotel, and its operational activities come under the direct/indirect control of front office department. In the lobby area, all the sections for uniformed service are primarily positioned for guest services in hospitality manner, such as bell attendants, hall poster, concierge, lift attendant and luggage porter/ chauffeur. Hugh degree of attention and care should be given by these section while offering these service.

 Function of uniform service in the hotel lobby are:

  • to receive and  welcome the guest and escort them to reception for registration formalities.
  • to maintain cordial relation with the guests.
  • to secure and carry luggage and baggage of the guest.
  • to handle parking service for guest vehicles.
  • to page the guest when required.
  • to give necessary information to guest about hotel rules, services, bedroom units/contents, etc.
  • to handle errand card stickers or tags for guest luggage, baggage and packages.
  • to make the list of check-in and check-out record of the guest on daily basis.
  • to check the room status in the case of room discrepancy.
  • to observe and control the unusual event such as, scanty baggage, skipper, etc.
  • to handle postal and left luggage services.


Job description of lobby manager {F/O}
Report to: front office manager

Supervises and assign duty roster for F/O attendant, Concierge, Bell Counter, Guest Relations and Business Center. Responsible for VIP movement in the Hotel.

Duties and responsibilities 

  • Greets the VIP guests of the hotel. As directed by the Front office Manager, Performs special services for VIP Guest’s.
  • Assists in VIP’s arrival departure in absence of guest relation officers.
  • Checks cleanliness of lobby and public areas, lights and as well as front office staff in proper and orderly appearance and behavior.
  • Checks on registration cards of arriving guests and ensures all information should be filled on each cards either by Guest Relation Officers or the guests.
  • Assists in sending guest messages or faxes.
  • Gives the instructions to the Night Reception, during the high occupancy periods, regarding: walk-in guests and release room blocked because of no- shows
  • Assists in handling room lock problems.
  • Prepares and checks for VIP’s arrival and escorts guests to rooms.
  • Co-ordinates with all departments concerned in order to maintain Front Office functions properly.
  • Operates the front office computer system in order to assist front office attendants.
  • Checks group department, fit and ensure switchboard makes appropriate wake up calls.
  • Handles guest complaints and other related problems and reports on the Assistant Manager’s log book.
  • Assists reception, business centre, cashier, concierge and bell captain during they are busy.
  • Answers guests inquires, handles complaints and attend to the needs of the guests.
  • Approves and sign for allowances, rebates etc., as required by Front Office Cashier.
  • Authorizes charges to be made for late departures and/or compliments on them.
  • Promotes and maintains good public relations.
  • Motivates and maintains good staff relations.
  • Maintains and be guided of hotel policy on credit/lost and found hotel guests properties.
  • Follows up in credit check report, liaise with credit manager.
  • To responsible for front office operation during the absence of Front Office Manager.
  • To discuss all matters that needed to follow up with the next shift Reception Manager.
  • Approves the working schedule for the front office attendants and submits them to front office manager.
  • Conducts and ensures the neat of appearance of front office attendant as well as correct attitude and behavior, discusses problems that encountered on this point with front office manager, assistant front office manager and their shift leaders.
  • Assigns and Approves Duty roster for all Front desk staffs.


Job description of front office manager
 Report to: Assistant manager or General manager

  • Duties and responsibilities

  1. Trains, cross –trains, and retrains all front office personnel.
  2. Participates in the selection of front office personnel.
  3. Schedules the front office staff.
  4. Supervises workload during shifts.
  5. Evaluates the job performance if each front office employee.
  6. Maintains working relationships and communicates with all departments.
  7. Maintains master key control.
  8. Verifies that accurate room status information is maintained and properly communicated.
  9. Resolves guest problems quickly, efficiently, and courteously.
  10. Updates group information. Maintains, monitors, and prepares group requirements. Relays information to appropriate personnel.
  11. Reviews and completes credit limit report.
  12. Works within the allocated budget for the front office.
  13. Receives information from the previous shift manger and passes on pertinent details to the oncoming manager.
  14. Checks cashiers in and out and verifies banks and deposits at the end of each shift.
  15. Enforces all cash-handling, check-cashing, and credit policies.
  16. Conducts regularly scheduled meetings of front office personnel.
  17. Wears the proper uniform at all times. Requires all front office employees to wear proper uniforms at all times.
  18. Upholds the hotel's commitment to hospitality.
  19. Prepare performance reports related to front office.
  20. Maximize room revenue and occupancy by reviewing status daily. Analyze rate variance, monitor credit report and maintain close observation of daily house count. Monitor selling status of house daily. Ie flash report, allowance etc.
  21. Monitor high balance guest and take appropriate action.
  22. Ensure implementation of all hotel policies and house rules.
  23. Operate all aspects of Front Office computer system, including software maintenance, report generation and analysis, and simple configuration changes.
  24. Prepare revenue and occupancy forecasting.
  25. Ensure logging and delivery of all messages, packages, and mail in a timely and professional manner.
  26. Ensure that employees are, at all times, attentive, friendly, helpful and courteous to all guests managers and other employees.
  27. Monitor all V.I.P 's special guests and requests.
  28. Maintain required pars of all front office and stationary supplies.
  29. Review daily front office work and activity reports generated by Night Audit.
  30. Review Front office log book and Guest feedback forms on a daily basis.
  31. Maintain an organized and comprehensive filing system with documentation of purchases, vouchering, schedules, forecasts, reports and tracking logs.
  32. Perform other duties as requested by management.


Food and Beverage Service is the service of Food made in the Kitchen and Drinks prepared in the Bar to the Customers (Guest) at the Food & Beverage premises, which can be: Restaurants, Bars, Hotels, Airlines, Cruise Ships, Trains, Companies, Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, Prisons, Takeaway etc

This is anything edible raw or cooked and it`s not harmful to the human body. 'BEVERAGES' This means drinks or eat any food taken in liquid form. foods and beverages is a subject or study that deals with training students as a profession on how to give good service to customers. in the hostel and catering industry, the trainee or students must be keen ambitious interest,  pleasant way of behaviors and ability to accept changes. As an individual a trainee (waiter or waitress) shows his or her skill in front of the guests or customers by giving the required profession service. as a catering student, there are many chances of jobs or places where are can work.

The food & beverage industry is usually defined by it output of products, to satisfy the various demands of food & drinks of people. Bu it doesn’t include the manufacturing of food & drink and its retailing. In today’s world, the food & beverage service industry has expanded a lot and nowadays, it is serving more than 100 million meals per day. It has spread across all walks of life; Hotel, restaurants, industrial canteen, hospital canteen, railway, airways, all are now part of food & beverage service industry.


We can categorize the service methods in five types:

  A. Table Service
  B. Assisted service
  C. Self‐ service
  D. Single point service
  E. Specialized or in suit service

 A. Table Service: In this category, the guest enters in the area and is seated. Menu lists are given or displayed for orders. The orders are been taken by waiter/waitress. Then the service is done using a laid cover on the table. The following are the types of service come under this categories are:

  • English service
  • French service
  • Silver service 
  • American/Plate service
  • Russian service
  • Gueridon service

 B. Assisted Service: In this type of category, the guest enters in the dining area and helps himself to the food, either from a buffet counter or he may get served partly at table by waiter/waitress and he collects any extras he needs from the counter. Eating may be done on either at table, standing or in lounge area/ banquet hall.

  • Buffet service

 C.Self Service: In this type of service, the guest enters in the dinning area, selects his own tray or from the food counter and carries food by himself to his seating place.

  •  Cafeteria Service

 D.Single Point Service: In this category, the guest orders, pays for his order and gets served all at a single point. There may be may not be any dinning area or seats.  The different types are:

  • Take away
  • Food counter
  • Vending

 E.Specialized Service: In this category the guest is served at the place, which is not meant or designated for food & beverage service (i.e. guest rooms or any special area).

  • Room Service (Centralized/Decentralized)
  • Grill Room Service
  • Tray service
  • Trolley service
  • Home‐Delivery
  • Lounge Service


 Hospitality is probably the most diverse but specialized industry in the world. It is certainly one of the largest, employing millions of people in a bewildering array of jobs around the globe. Sectors range from the glamorous five-star resort to the less fashionable, but arguably more specialized, institutional areas such as hospitals, industrial outfits, schools and colleges. Yet of these many different sectors, catering has to be the most challenging.

 The food service industry encompasses those places, institutions and companies that provide meals eaten away from home. This industry includes restaurants, schools and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, and many other formats, including ‘on-premises’ and ‘off-premises’ caterings.

 Catering is a multifaceted segment of the food service industry. There is a niche for all types of catering businesses within the segment of catering. The food service industry is divided into three general classifications: commercial segment, noncommercial segment, and military segment. Catering management may be defined as the task of planning, organizing, controlling and executing. Each activity influences the preparation and delivery of food, beverage, and related services at a competitive, yet profitable price. These activities work together to meet and exceed the customer’s perception of value for his money.

Types of catering
 There are two main types of catering on-premises and off premises catering that may be a concern to a large and small caterer. On-premise catering for any function - banquet, reception, or event - that is held on the physical premises of the establishment or facility that is organizing/sponsoring the function. On-premise catering differs from off-premise catering, whereby the function takes place in a remote location, such as a client’s home, a park, an art gallery, or even a parking lot, and the staff, food, and decor must be transported to that location. Off-premise catering often involves producing food at a central kitchen, with delivery to and service provided at the client’s location. Part or all of the production of food may be executed or finished at the location of the event.

 1 On-Premise Catering
 All of the required functions and services that the caterers execute are done exclusively at their own facility. For instance, a caterer within a hotel or banquet hall will prepare and cater all of the requirements without taking any service or food outside the facility. Many restaurants have specialized rooms on-premise to cater to the private-party niche. A restaurant may have a layout strategically designed with three separate dining rooms attached to a centralized commercial food production kitchen. These separate dining rooms are available at the same time to support the restaurant’s operation and for reservation and overflow seating. In addition, any of the three dining rooms may be contracted out for private-event celebrations and may require their own specialized service and menu options. Other examples of on-premise catering include hospital catering, school, University/ college catering.

 2 Off-Premise Catering
 Off-premise catering is serving food at a location away from the caterer’s food production facility. One example of a food production facility is a freestanding commissary, which is a kitchen facility used exclusively for the preparation of foods to be served at other locations. Other examples of production facilities include, but are not limited to, hotel, restaurant, and club kitchens. In most cases there is no existing kitchen facility at the location where the food is served. Caterers provide single-event food service, but not all caterers are created equal. They generally fall into one of three categories:

Party food caterers
Hot buffet caterers
full buffet caterers


A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Service is generally for eating on premises, though the term has been used to include take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service. Restaurants are sometimes a feature of a larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are provided for the convenience of the residents and, of course, for the hotel with a
 singular objective to maximize their potential revenue. Such restaurants are often also open to non-residents. Restaurants range from unpretentious lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with simple food and fixed menu served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive
 Establishments serving expensive speciality food and wines in a Formal setting. In the former case, customers usually wear casual Clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions,
 Customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal, or even in rare Cases formal wear. Typically, customers sit at tables, their orders are Taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready, and the Customers pay the bill before leaving. In class or porches restaurants there will be a host or hostess or even a miter d'hôtel to welcome Customers and to seat them. Other staff’s waiting on customers Include busboys and sommeliers.

 Restaurants can be classified by whether they provide places to sit, whether they are served by wait-staff and the quality of the Service, the formal atmosphere, and the price range. Restaurants are generally classified into three groups:

 1. Quick Service - Also known as fast-food restaurants. They offer limited menus that are prepared quickly. They usually have drive-thru windows and take-out. They may also be self service outfits.

 2. Mid scale - They offer full meals at a medium price that customers perceive as "good value." They can be o f full service, buffets or limited service with customers ordering at the counter and having their food brought to them or self service.

 3. Upscale - Offer high quality cuisine at a high end price. They offer full service and have a high quality of ambiance.


Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or
 present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For
 example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or
 ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local"
 food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of
 foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese
 restaurant and a French restaurant.

 1. Cafeterias
 A cafeteria is a restaurant serving mostly cooked ready to food arranged behind a food-serving counter. There is little or no table service. Depending on the establishment, serving may be ordered from attendants, selected as ready-made portions already on plates, or self-serve of food of their own choice. In some establishments, a few items such as steaks may be ordered specially prepared rare, medium and well done from the attendants. The patron waits for those items to be prepared or is given a number and they are brought to the table. Beverages may be filled from self service dispensers or ordered from the attendants. At the end of the line a cashier rings up the purchases. At some self-service cafeterias, purchases are priced by weight, rather than by individual item. The trays filled with selected items of food are taken to a table to eat. Institutional cafeterias may have common tables, but upscale cafeterias provide individual tables as in sit-down restaurants. Upscale cafeterias have traditional cutlery and crockery, and some have servers to carry the trays from the line to the patrons' tables, and/ or bus the empty trays and used dishes.

 Cafeterias have a wider variety of prepared foods. For example, it may have a variety of roasts (beef, ham, turkey) ready for carving by a server, as well as other cooked entrées, rather than simply an offering of hamburgers or fried chicken.

 2. Fast-Food Restaurants
 Fast-food restaurants emphasize speed of service and low cost over all other considerations. A common feature of newer fast food restaurants that distinguishes them from traditional cafeteria is
 a lack of cutlery or crockery; the customer is expected to eat the food directly from the disposable container it was served in using their fingers.

 There are various types of fast-food restaurant:

  •  one collects food from a counter and pays, then sits down and starts eating (as in a self-service restaurant or cafeteria); sub-varieties:
  •  one collects ready portions
  •  one serves oneself from containers
  •  one is served at the counter
  •  a special procedure is that one first pays at the cash desk, collects a coupon and then goes to the food
  •  counter, where one gets the food in exchange for the coupon.
  •  one orders at the counter; after preparation the food is brought to one's table; paying may be on ordering or after eating.
  •  a drive-through is a type of fast-food restaurant without seating; diners receive their food in their cars and drive away to eat most fast-food restaurants offer take-out: ready-to-eat hot food in disposable packaging for the customer to eat off-site.

 3. Casual Restaurants
 A casual dining restaurant is a restaurant that serves moderately-priced food in a casual atmosphere. Except for buffet style restaurants, casual dining restaurants typically provide table service. Casual dining comprises of a market segment between fast food establishments and fine dining restaurants.

 4. Fast Casual-Dining Restaurants
 A fast casual restaurant is similar to a fast-food restaurant in that it does not offer full table service, but promises a somewhat higher quality of food and atmosphere. Average prices charged are higher than fast-food prices and non-disposable plates and cutlery are usually offered. This category is a growing concept that fills the space between fast food and casual dining. Counter service accompanied by handmade food (often visible via an open kitchen) is typical. Alcohol may be served. Dishes like steak, which require experience on the part of the cook to get it right, may be offered. The menu is usually limited to an extended over-counter display, and options in the way the food is prepared are emphasized.

 5. Other Restaurants
 Most of these establishments can be considered sub-types of
 fast casual-dining restaurants or casual-dining restaurants.

 i) Café
 Cafés and coffee shops are informal restaurants offering a range of hot meals and made-to-order sandwiches. Cafés offer table service. Many cafés are open for breakfast and serve full hot breakfasts. In some areas, cafés offer outdoor seating.

 ii) Coffeehouse
 Coffeehouses are casual restaurants without table service that emphasize coffee and other beverages; typically a limited selection of cold foods such as pastries and perhaps sandwiches are offered as well. Their distinguishing feature is that they allow patrons to relax and socialize on their
 premises for long periods of time without pressure to leave promptly after eating.

 iii) Pub
 A pub (short for public house) is a bar that serves simple food fare. Traditionally, pubs were primarily drinking establishments with food in a decidedly secondary position, whereas the modern pub business relies on food as well, to the point where gastropubs are known for their high-quality
 pub food. A typical pub has a large selection of beers and ales on tap.

 iv) Bistros and Brasserie
 A brasserie is a café doubling as a restaurant and serving single dishes and other meals in a relaxed setting. A bistro is a familiar name for a café serving moderately priced simple meals in an unpretentious setting. Especially in Paris, bistros have become increasingly popular with tourists. When used in English, the term bistro usually indicates either a fast casual-dining restaurant with a European-influenced menu or a café with a larger menu of food.

 v) Family Style
 "Family style restaurants" are restaurants that have a fixed menu and fixed price, usually with diners seated at acommunal table such as on bench seats. More common in the 19th and early 20th century, they can still be found in rural communities, or as theme restaurants, or in vacation lodges. There is no menu to choose from; rather food is brought out in courses, usually with communal serving
 dishes, like at a family meal. Typical examples can include crabhouses, German-style beer halls, BBQ restaurants, hunting lodges, e tc. Some normal restaurants will mix elements of family style, such as a table salad or bread bowl that is included as part of the meal.

 vi) BYO Restaurant
 BYO Restaurant are restaurants and bistros which do not have a liquor license.

 vii) Delicatessens Restaurant
 Restaurants offering foods intended for immediate consumption. The main product line is normally luncheon meats and cheeses. They may offer sandwiches, soups, and salads as well. Most foods are precooked prior to delivery. Preparation of food products is generally simple and only
 involves one or two steps.

 viii) Ethnic Restaurants
 They range from quick-service to upscale. Their menus usually include ethnic dishes and / or authentic ethnic foods. Specialize in a particular multicultural cuisine not specifically
 accommodated by any other listed categories. Example: Asian Cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Indian Cuisine, American Cuisine etc.

 ix) Destination Restaurants
 A destination restaurant is one that has a strong enough appeal to draw customers from beyond its community. Example: Michelin Guide 3-star restaurant in Europe, which according to the restaurant guides is "worthy of a journey”.


The following are the various designations with their job specifications in the food and beverage department.

 i) Senior Captain or Maitre d’ Hotel
 The senior captain has overall responsibility for operations. prepares the duty charts in consultation with the outlet manager. He oversees the Mise-en-place, cleaning, setting
 up of the outlet and staffing to ensure that the outlet is always ready for service. The senior captain receives the guests and hands them over to the captain or station holder. He takes orders from guests if the captain is unable to do so. The
 senior captain should be an able organizer and also be prepared to take over the duties of any member of the staff as and when required.
 ii) Reception Head Waiter
 This staff member is responsible for accepting any booking and for keeping the booking diary up-to-date. He / she will
 reserve tables and allocate these reservations to particular stations. The reception head waiter greets guests on arrival and takes them to the table and seats them.
 iii) Captain / Chef de Rang
 This position exists in large restaurants, as well as in the food and beverage service department of all major hotels. The captain is basically a supervisor and is in charge of a
 particular section. A restaurant may be divided into sections called Stations, each consisting of 4 to 5 tables or 20 to 24 covers. A captain is responsible for the efficient performance of the staff in his station. A captain should possess a sound
 knowledge of food and beverage, and be able to discuss the menu with the guests. He should be able to take a guest's order and be an efficient salesperson. Specialized service
 such as gueridon work involves a certain degree of skill, and it is the captain who usually takes the responsibility to do this work.
 iv) Waiters / Commis de Rang / Server
 The waiters serve the food and beverage ordered by a guest and is part of a team under a station captain. They should be able to perform the duties of a captain to a certain extent and be a substitute for the captain if he is busy or not on duty.
 They should; also be knowledgeable about all types of food and beverages, so that they can effectively take an order from a guest, execute the order and serve the correct dish with its appropriate garnish and accompaniment. They should be able to efficiently coordinate with the other staff in the outlet.
 v) Trainee / Commis De Barraseur
 The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders from the kitchen and the bar, and clearing the side station in a restaurant. They serve water and assist the waiter. They are mainly responsible for the mise-en-place, and stacking
 the side board with the necessary equipment for service. The de barrasseur is the ‘learner’, having just joined the food service staff, and possibly wishing to take up food service as a career.
 vi) Wine Waiter / Sommelier
 Wine waiters have an important role to play in reputed establishments. Their job is to take orders for the service of wine and alcoholic beverages and serve them during the meal. Hence they should be knowledgeable about wines that accompany a particular dish and the manner in which they
 should be served. They should also be aware of the licensing laws prevalent in the city and should be efficient sales persons.
 vii) Room Service Waiters / Chef D’etage
 Room service waiters work in the room service outlet, serving food and beverage to guests in their rooms. The order is placed by the guest on telephone, and is recorded on
 a Kitchen Order Ticket (K.O.T). It is then passed on to the duty captain. The duty captain in turn places the order in the kitchen or the bar, as the case may be. The room service waiter who has been assigned that order, sets the tray
 according to the food or beverage ordered, picks up and delivers the order when it is ready.
 viii) Carver / Trancheur
 The carver is responsible for the carving trolley and the carving of joints at the table as required. The carver will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment.
 ix) Floor Service Staff / Floor Waiter
 The floor service staffs are often responsible for an entire floor in an establishment or, depending on the size of the establishment, a number of rooms or suites. Floor service of all meals and breakfast is offered either throughout the day or
 in a limited time depending on the size of the establishment. The floor service staff would normally work from a floor pantry or from a central kitchen with all food and drink reaching the appropriate floor and the required room by lift and in a heated trolley.
 x) Lounge staff / Chef de sale
 Lounge staff may deal with lounge service as a specific duty only in a first class establishment. The lounge staff is responsible for the service of morning coffee, afternoon teas,
 aperitifs and liqueurs before and after both lunch and dinner, and any coffee top ups required after meals. They would be responsible for setting up the lounge in the morning and maintaining its cleanliness and presentation throughout the day.
 xi) Cocktail Bar Staff
 The person who works on the cocktail bar must be responsible, well versed in the skills of shaking and stirring cocktails and should have thorough knowledge of all alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, the ingredients necessary for the making of cocktails and of the licensing laws.
 xii) Buffet Assistant / Buffet Chef / Chef de buffet
 The chef de buffet is in charge of the buffet in the room, its presentation, the carving and portioning of food and its service. This staff would normally be a member of the kitchen team. The cashier is responsible for the takings of the food and beverage operation. This may include making up bills from food and drink check or, alternatively, in a cafeteria, for example, charging customers for their selection of items on a tray.
 xiii) Counter Assistants 
 Counter assistants are found in cafeterias where they would stock the counter and sometimes serve or portion food for customers. Duties may also include some cooking of call order items.
 xiv) Table Clearer
 Table clearer are responsible for clearing tables and trolleys, specially designed for good stacking of crockery, glassware, cutlery, etc.


The food and beverage service department usually has the largest staff. Able leadership and supervision is required to effectively direct the department and guide the staff. The personnel in the food and beverage service industry require practical knowledge of operations as even a small error can cause displeasure to the guest. Coordination of activities of all outlets is essential to provide the guest with quality service at all times. Teamwork is the watchword in any food and beverage service department. A dedicated and committed team, with able leadership, under ideal working conditions, helps in fulfilling the establishment's ultimate goal of guest satisfaction

 The important duties and responsibilities of the restaurant staffs are discussed in this section.

1. Food and Beverage Manager
 The food and beverage manager is the head of the food and beverage service department, and is responsible for its administrative and operational work. Food and Beverage Managers
 direct, plan and control all aspects of food and beverage services. Food and Beverage Managers require excellent sales and service skills, proven human resource management skills,
 and good communication and leadership skills. Desired knowledge for this position includes knowledge of the products, services, sector, industry and local area, and knowledge of relevant legislation and regulations, as well. Hence it is said that food and beverage manager is a Jack-of-all-trades, as the job covers a wide variety of duties.

 In general, food and beverage manager is responsible for:

 i) Budgeting
 The food and beverage manager is responsible for preparing the budget for the department. He should ensure that each outlet in the department achieves the estimated profit margins.
 ii) Compiling New Menus and Wine Lists
 In consultation with the chef, and based on the availability of ingredients and prevailing trends, the food and beverage manager should update and if necessary, compile new menus. New and updated wine lists should also be introduced regularly.
 iii) Quality Control
 The food and beverage manager should ensure quality control in terms of efficiency in all service areas, by ascertaining that the staffs are adequately trained in keeping with the standards of the unit.
 iv) Manpower Development
 The food and beverage manager is responsible for recruitment, promotions, transfers and dismissals in the department. He should hold regular meetings with section heads, to ensure that both routine as well as projected activities of the department go on as planned. He must also give training, motivate and effectively control staff.

2. Assistant Food and Beverage Manager
 The assistant food and beverage manager assists the food and beverage manager in running the department by being more involved in the actual day-to-day operations. This position exists only in large organizations. An assistant food and beverage manager's
 job includes:
 i) Assisting section heads during busy periods.
 ii) Taking charge of an outlet, when an outlet manager is on leave.
 iii) Setting duty schedules for all the outlet managers and monitoring their performance.
 iv) Running the department independently in the absence of the food and beverage manager.

3 Restaurant Manager
 Restaurant Manager is responsible for directing and supervising all activities pertaining to employee relation, food production, sanitation, guest service and operating profits. The restaurant manager is either the coffee shop manager, bar manager or the specialist restaurant manager. The restaurant manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and has overall responsibility for the organization and administration of a particular outlet or a section of the food and beverage service department. The restaurant manager's job includes:
 i) Setting and monitoring the standards of service in the outlets.
 ii) Administrative duties such as setting duty charts, granting leave, monitoring staff positions, recommending staff promotions and handling issues relating to discipline.
 iii) Training the staff by conducting a daily briefing in the outlet.
 iv) Playing a vital role in public relations, meeting guests in the outlets and attending to guest complaints, if any.
 v) Formulating the sales and expenditure budget for the outlet.
 vi) Planning food festivals to increase the revenue and organizing advertisement campaign of the outlet along with the chef and the food and beverage manager.

4. Room Service Manager
 The room service manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and is responsible for the room service outlet. The room service manager checks that the service rendered to the guests conforms to the standards set by the hotel. He also monitors all operational aspects of the outlet such as service, billing, duty charts, leave and absenteeism, in addition to attending to guest complaints regarding food and service. The room service manager is also in charge of the sales and expenditure budget. The room service is most liable to have problems. The room service manager should ensure coordination among the room service order taker, the captain and the waiter. It is necessary for the room service manager to be present in the outlet during peak hours to interact with other departments of the hotel and to take regular momentum of all the equipment used In the event of the hotel offering valet service and the room service manager takes charge of that service as well .

5. Bar Manager
 Bar Manager organizes and controls a bar's operations. A bar manager arranges the purchase and pricing of beverages according to budget; selects, trains and supervises bar staff; maintains records
 of stock levels and financial transactions; makes sure bar staff follow liquor laws and regulations; and checks on customer satisfaction and preferences.

 The bar manager should have good interpersonal skills and good memory. He must be efficient and speedy, must enjoy working with people. He should have good cash-handling skills.

6. Banquet Manager
 The banquet manager supervises the banquet operations, sets up break-down service according to the standards established by the hotel. He co-ordinates the banquet service in conjunction with
 other departments involved and prepares weekly schedules for the banquet personnel. From the time the bookings are done till the guest settles the bill, the banquet manager is in charge of all aspects of banquet and conference operations. He supervises the work of the banquet sales assistants, who do the banquet bookings and the captains and waiters who perform the food and beverage service activities under his guidance. He is responsible for organizing everything right down to the finest detail. The banquet manager projects the budget of the banquets, and works in close coordination with the chef in preparing menus. He is responsible for making an inventory of all the banquet equipment and maintaining a balance between revenue and expenditure. Banquet managers may also be designated as assistant managers in the food and beverage service department.


In simple term, It is the process of preparing food raw into cooked.
Food production in catering term simply refers to the food preparation and control. This is a sub department of food and beverage department in a large hotel comprises of various kitchens concerning mainly with the continental, Chinese and Indian cuisine. In the food production cycle, these kitchen receive the core or ready-made ingredients, processing them through the preparing and cooking methods, and deliver them via various service outlets to the customer table. This sub-department is designed providing the several section include preparation area, cooking area, storage area, cleaning area, etc. Hence, these section play a vital role in preparing dishes in order to the acquired recipes mentioned in different menus.

In culinary terminology, the term food preparation and control refer to make the ingredients ready for the preparation and cooking at the required quantity and quality simultaneously. This is a vital unit, which is structurally defined as the sub department of F&B department in the hotel industry. From the commercial view point, it contributes major revenue in any catering business.

It is one of the largest areas of food and beverage department comprising of various kitchens and their sections. The number of kitchens, manpower and work efficiency depends upon the size and type of the hotel and the types of meal and service to the catered. There may be continental, Oriented, Indian, Italian, Mexican, etc. Kitchens including ancillary sections, e.g. cold kitchen, butchery, still room, service areas, etc. However, this sub-department produces the food that adopts the system of preparation and control, from the receipts of food supply to service of prepared food to the customer.

The term kitchen is derived from the French word “Cuisine” which literally means Art of cooking or food preparation in the kitchen. But in the modern concept of catering the cuisine not only refers to Art of cooking foods in the kitchen, it also indicates the style of service offered to sere the food.


One of the intensely developing technologies in recent days is the Food technology. People usually prefer quality in every product. To fulfill that, each and every sector started doing research in improving their standards. Work of a Food Production Manager has a major role in it.

Taking responsibility is very important for food production manager because all food and beverage cares & handled by food production manager.They need to supervise the production of a food product and also to make sure the sanitation of the production area. Food service Managing comes under Food production Manager, which means delivering the products with care and quality from the manufacturing place to the clients. They are responsible for providing training to the employees. All the work in kitchen for food production is done systemically which makes easy to handle food production department. In hotel food and beverage  is very important that why food production manager have work carefully and handle his staff for smooth run of hotel.

Responsibilities of a Food Production Manager:

  1. They need to prepare a proper schedule of food production for the order which the company got.
  2. They have to allot the manpower accordingly with efficiency of completing the work on time.
  3. They must prepare a report after the completion of the production work with all necessary documents.
  4. They should be vigilant in forecasting the risk problems before commencing the work.
  5. They should develop new food products welcomed by the market need and promote it in an effective way.
  6. They need to ensure the quality and hygiene of the product.
  7. They must develop, implement and monitor the optimum nutrition contents of the products.
  8. They also must ensure the safety of the employees.


A production manager is involved with the planning, coordination and control of manufacturing processes. They ensure that goods and services are produced efficiently and that the correct amount is produced at the right cost and level of quality.

 #The scope of the job depends on the nature of the production system:

  • jobbing;
  • mass;
  • process;
  • batch production.

Many companies are involved in several types of production, adding to the complexity of the job.Most production managers are responsible for both human and material resources.

Responsibilities of Production manager

The exact nature of the work will depend on the size of the employing organisation. However, tasks typically involve:

  • overseeing the production process, drawing up a production schedule;
  • ensuring that the production is cost effective;
  • making sure that products are produced on time and are of good quality;
  • working out the human and material resources needed;
  • drafting a timescale for the job;
  • estimating costs and setting the quality standards;
  • monitoring the production processes and adjusting schedules as needed;
  • being responsible for the selection and maintenance of equipment;
  • monitoring product standards and implementing quality-control programmes;
  • liaising among different departments, e.g. suppliers, managers;
  • working with managers to implement the company's policies and goals;
  • ensuring that health and safety guidelines are followed;
  • supervising and motivating a team of workers;
  • reviewing worker performance;
  • identifying training needs.

 A production manager is involved in the pre-production (planning) stage as well as the production (control and supervision) stage.
A large part of production management involves dealing with people, particularly those who work in your team.
Production managers are also involved with product design and purchasing. In a small firm you may have to make many of the decisions yourself, but in a larger organisation planners, controllers, production engineers and production supervisors will assist you.
In progressive firms, the production manager's role tends to be more closely integrated with other functions, such as marketing, sales and finance.


Head Chef

 Job Purpose:

 As the person responsible for all kitchen produce, to co-ordinate the distribution of tasks among his or her teams ensuring that the work progresses as it should within the time available.

 To prepare all the menus in co-operation with the Restaurant Manager and check customer satisfaction levels by exercising a presence in the restaurant at meal times.

Key Responsibilities

  • To ensure that production is correctly executed and that products comply with the technical sheets
  • To ensure the quality levels of products and services
  • To manage his or her staff: training, motivating and structuring the team. He or she also ensures a good working atmosphere
  • To provide rigorous management: controlling raw material stocks, especially in terms of their cost
  • Entry Requirements


  • Cooking skills: the ability to adapt your cooking style to your local environment
  • Using the Windows environment
  • The ability to manage a profit centre: stock, cost prices, orders etc
  • The ability to manage a team: supervision, training, motivation, delegation
  • Self-control
  • Team leadership
  • Good relationship skills
  • Organisation and thoroughness
  • Creativity
  • Teaching skills
  • Physical and mental resilience

Sous chef

 Job Purpose:

 To be totally customer focused by consistently delivering excellent customer service with an informed, friendly and effective approach.

 To assist with the control and ownership for the management of the kitchen department within the overall policies and controls established by the company and hotel General Manager, ensuring that the brand values and standards are delivered and budgeted profitability achieved.

 To ensure at all times a high standard of cleanliness and practices is maintained, thereby ensuring all statutory legislation is met.

Key Responsibilities

 Customer Focus:

  • To implement the consistent delivery of superior customer service through the Customer Service Programme.
  • To ensure that the department creates a professional impression to customers and team members.
  • To review and act upon customer feedback relevant to your areas of responsibility.
  • This to include customer complaints and compliments.

Pastry Chef

 Job Purpose:

 To co-ordinate the distribution of tasks amongst his or her team and ensure that the work progresses as it should within the time available.

 In the restaurant, he or she helps to prepare the dessert menu.

Key Responsibilities

  • To ensure that health and safety standards are applied and respected (especially HACCP)
  • To recruit, motivate and train the members of his or her team
  • To ensure that products are correctly prepared and comply with technical sheets
  • To ensure the quality levels of products and services
  • To provide rigorous management: controlling raw material stocks, especially in terms of their cost
  • To keep the various departments informed of the applicable procedures

Chef de Partie

 Job Purpose:

 To be totally customer focused by consistently delivering excellent customer service with an informed, friendly and effective approach.

 To be responsible for the preparation and presentation of all dishes in your allocated area, ensuring that all guests receive efficient service and high quality dishes.

 To gain experience in all sections of the kitchen and ensure company and legal requirements are maintained at all times.

Key Responsibilities:

  • To be fully aware of the preparation and service of all dishes on the hotel menus.
  • To prepare and present dishes on hotel menus according to customer requirements.
  • To ensure mise en place is carried out in your allocated area of work to meet forecasted demand.
  • To maintain portion control guidelines in order to ensure the profitability of kitchen is maintained.
  • To record temperature checks on food and in storage areas as directed to ensure statutory requirements are met and report any variances are rectified immediately.
  • To ensure food materials are stored correctly and rotated to meet company and legal requirements.
  • To keep food wastage to a minimum.
  • To maintain high standards of working practices in terms of personal appearance and safe and hygienic working practices.
  • To assist with the training of and supervise other members of the kitchen brigade.
  • To assist with quality control and menu planning where appropriate.
  • To practice the correct and safe use and care of all items of equipment.
  • To report all damage, hazards and wear and tear occurring within your areas of work.
  • To ensure all security and control procedures laid down are strictly adhered to.
  • To assist with various cleaning duties as required.
  • To be aware of product cost and kitchen gross profit targets.
  • To assist with the ordering of food materials as required following company procedures.
  • To consistently deliver superior customer service through our Customer Service Programme
  • To be fully aware of and strictly observe Food Safety regulations and requirements.
  • To attend training when required.
  • To be fully aware of and strictly observe Health & Safety and fire procedures.
  • To be fully aware of and comply with hotel and company rules and regulations as identified in the team member handbook.

Commis Chef

 Job Purpose:

 To assist the Cook or Section Chef in preparing meals.

 Depending on his or her length of experience (beginner or confirmed), the Commis Chef may carry out the following tasks:

  • Looking after the area allocated to him or her
  • Food preparation tasks (mincing, garnishes, etc)
  • Hot and cold cooking tasks (simple cooking, seasoning, etc)
  • Cleaning and tidying the area allocated to him or her
  • The Commis Chef may be required to stand in for his or her superior (Section Chef or Head Chef) when the latter is absent on leave

Key Responsibilities:
  • To ensure that health and safety rules are applied and respected (especially HACCP)
  • To look after his or her own area
  • To ensure the cleanliness and tidiness of working areas (floors, equipment, tables, etc)

Kitchen Porter/Stewards

 Job Purpose:

  •  To be responsible for washing the restaurant dishes and all the kitchen utensils, as well as cleaning all the larger items of kitchen equipment and the food production areas

Key Responsibilities:

  • To ensure the long life and cleanliness of the equipment he or she is provided with
  • Entry Requirements
  • Skills
  • Respect for hygiene and equipment
  • Respect for the instruction given by management
  • Willingness to work hard
  • Physical resilience


1.Main kitchen
 Main kitchen is probably located at the central part of hotel where overall sequence of food receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, serving and clearing areas are properly designed and managed. Technically, it is known as central kitchen having many sections. Hence, it may occupy a large space. This kitchen provides wide range of food varieties e.g. Indian, continental, oriental, Mexican, Italian, etc. through its respective section with the help of skilled/semi-skilled culinary crafts persons called chef-de-parties and commie cooks.

 A main kitchen is usually located adjacent to room service, service bar, store, pantry stillroom, bakery, butchery etc. for efficient work flow. It may have both a’ la crate and table d’ hotel menu for breakfast, lunch and dinner. This kitchen may serve up to three or four line dining restaurants simultaneously. There is often a separate kitchen for banquet and other activities.

 Basically, main kitchen is divided into the following sections:

  • The hot sections (the main cooking areas)
  • Still room
  • The vegetable preparation area
  • The cold section
  • The pastry/bakery section
  • The butchery section
  • Attached cleaning and washing area (kitchen steward)
  • Cold provisional store
  • Head chef’s office
  • The larder
  • Temporary kitchen

 2.Satellite kitchen
 Satellite kitchen is constructed and established to cater to a particular outlet where the main kitchen cannot cater due to its location disadvantage. Largely, this kitchen can organize most of the preparation work in its own kitchen. However, it may depend upon the main kitchen for various other things such sauce, stocks, gravies, pastas, etc. usually such a chef commands over this kitchen. This kitchen becomes a must for specialty restaurants such Andean, Continental, Chinese, Mexican, Nepalese, etc. which are located away from the main kitchen.

 3.Fast food kitchen
 Fast food kitchen is influenced by American catering technology, i.e. fast food to lead a fast life. Fast food was developed from original fish and chips concept at that time. But modern catering mostly provides dry and light food. It is independently established to meet the pace of customers’ busy life. It is specially located at the public area (lobby level) of a hotel, or out of hotel where either food is taken away or consumed at the fast food lounge area.

 Most of the fast food establishments may be found in retail and leisure areas and in road side service complexes, airport lounge, railway stations, and at some events where mobile hamburger and hot-dogs stalls are traditionally seen.

 It provides varieties of dry and light meals like burger, sandwich, fish and chips pizza, snacks, grilled meat/fish/shellfish, cold and hot beverages, etc.

 The characteristics of fast food kitchen are as follows:

  • Highly equipped with standard equipments.
  • Fully skilled employees.
  • Pre-cooked food at reasonable price range.
  • Established anywhere to cater to the fashionable customers.
  • Products offered can be cooked quickly and held in the short-term without deteriorating.
  • Mostly pre-plated service.
  • Adequate miser-en-place.
  • Large turn out of customers.
  • Precise portion control.

 4.Display kitchen
 In this kitchen food is prepared and cooked in full open view of customers, which appeals to the eyes, palate and dining experience of the consumers. At the same time, the sizzle and aroma of food item adds to the pleasure of eating e.g. grill Room. The hygiene, sanitation and décor of the kitchen, as well as the skill and showmanship of the staff in particular may determine the sale of such kitchens. This kitchen also seeks the support of the main kitchen for various items. It is headed by soups chef/ chef de parties.

Tuesday, April 19, 2016


Human Resource Department
           I believe the role of HR also has to do with administration of an impartial and internal justice system which will promote transparency and openness in organizational communication.
 HR also serves as a progressive voice in a common system and strives to ensure competitiveness in the conditions of service for staff.

Accounting Department   
           Accounting departments typically handle a variety of important tasks. Such tasks often include invoicing customers, accounts receivable monitoring and collections, account reconciliations, payable processing, consolidation of multiple entities under common ownership, budgeting, periodic financial reporting as well as financial analysis. Also common are setting up adequate internal controls for all business processes (to prevent theft/misappropriation of assets), handling external audits and dealing with banks in order to obtain financing. Taxes are sometime handled by accounting departments in house, but this work is often contracted to outside tax accountants.

Food and Beverage Department
            Food and Beverage Service is the service of Food made in the Kitchen and Drinks prepared in the Bar to the Customers (Guest) at the Food & Beverage premises, which can be: Restaurants, Bars, Hotels, Airlines, Cruise Ships, Trains, Companies, Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, Prisons, Takeaway etc.

Security department 
            Security department literally to protect the guests and staff of the hotel, including all of their property. Secondarily the security departments role in a hotel is to secure the actual premises, and the property of the Hotel itself. Hotel security department usually use preventative tasks such as patrolling, monortoring CCTV, and investigating.